About Qakh District
Qakh District (Azerbaijani: Qax rayonu; Georgian: კახის რაიონი – K′axis raioni), also Kakhi or sometimes Gakh, a raion (district) in the north of Azerbaijan, on the border with Georgia. The area of the region occupies 1,494 km2 (577 sq mi) and borders Russia on the north, Georgia on the west. It also shares the internal boundaries with Zaqatala Rayon in the northwest. Yevlakh and Samukh regions in the south and Shaki region in the east.
The Qakh region of Azerbaijan has a long history dating back to ancient times. Archaeological excavations the area had ben populated during Eneolithic, Bronze and early Iron Ages. What remains of these early inhabitants’ activities indicates they engaged largely in sedentary cultivation, animal-breeding and art. Qax (Kakhi) region ws part of Kakheti-Hereti Kingdom and than part of united Georgian kingdom. In 1921 Kakhi Region became part of Azerbaijan.
With the spread of Christianity throughout the region during the existence of Caucasian Albania, some Churches were built in the Qakh district. In the 8th century A.D., Qakh fell under Arab occupation. Starting from the 11th century first Oghuz Turks and later Qipchaq Turks inhabited the area. The region was incorporated into the Seljuq Empire. Qakh wa later a part of Atabeg and Shirvanshah states. With invasion of Hulaguids in Azerbaijan in the 13th century, Mongolian nomadic tribes populated the region. Since 1562, by the order of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp I, Ilisu Sultanate established in Qakh. In the 18th century, Ilisu Sultanate became so powerful that, the Ottoman Emperor conferred its ruler Ali Sultan Bey the highest title of Pasha recognizing him as the Beylerbey of Shaki.
In 1803 the sultanate of Ilisu annexed to the Russian empire. The ruler of the sultanate, Daniyal, inspired the people to rise against Russian rule in 1844, due to a disagreement between him and the Russia. Sultan Daniyel defeated near the village of İlisu and continued his struggle against Russian along with the leader of the national freedom movement, Sheykh Shamil. Russians burnt Ilisu and divided the territory of the sultanate into mahals (territorial units) and annexed them to the Jar-Balaken daire (territorial unit) converting it into a colony of tsarist Russia. With proclamation of independence of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in May 1918, Qakh was retaine within Azerbaijan. During the Soviet rule, Qakh was establishe as raion of Azerbaijan SSR in 1930.