Gobustan district

Gobustan district

Gobustan is one of the regions of the Shirvan historical region of Azerbaijan. It is located in the eastern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the eastern and southeastern foothills of the Greater Caucasus, in Gobustan, which has thousands of years of history. Historical and geographical location of the Gobustan territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the historical area of ​​ancient Shirvan extends from the Mingachevir to the Derbent Saghate (ancient Dagestan), including the great left bank of the Kura river, Derbent. That is why, in terms of historical-geographical terms Shirvan, Gobustan should be regarded as Shirvan. However, it is known that in the written sources of the past century, separation of the Shamakhi accident into two large areas (administrative area) as an administrative territorial unit. One of them called Qosun area and another was Gobustan area.

It should be noted that, according to the modern physical-geographical area of ​​Azerbaijan, Gobustan itself is a separate physical-geographical area. The physical and geographical territory of Gobustan crosses the southern suburb of Altiaghac with a drainage of the Kurakchi mountain (527 m), southward from the North Caucasus ridge.

Starting from Altiagac in the West, the Aladdash Plateau, Hilmilli (Hilemilli) and the left bank of the Pirsaat River flow through the river Acıdera to the river with the Pirsaat River in the south and then to the Saba steppes, with the Harem Mountains Mountain Mountains and the Minor Harami and Mishov Mountain Alat Nose with the Caspian Sea gains. The eastern border lies in the Caspian Sea and the Yasamal valley in the Absheron peninsula in the direction of the Jeyrankeçmez trough. Gobustan lies 80 km east of west, 100 km to the south from south to south. Part of the territory of Gobustan, with physical and geographical area, is part of the Gobustan administrative district, which established on April 24, 1990, including the Khizi, Absheron, Garadagh, Hajigabul administrative districts (1369.4 km2).

History 

The territory of the Gobustan administrative district, with little exception, corresponds to the territory of the former administrative district. Its northern frontier is the Tahtayaylak system in the Shamakhi district, north of the Khizi administrative region, along the Chingil River, in the western part of the Jung village, in the Absheron administrative district in the east, south-east, and Hajigabul administrative district in the south (6 km) from south, west and north-west of Shamakhi administrative districts. It is approximately 51 km to the south from the north and 45 km to the east from the west.

The territory of the Gobustan administrative district is a mountainous area with a complex relief. His study did not go beyond the attention of researchers throughout the territory of Gobustan and investigated it. The Gobustan district is southeastern. According to the area’s geography, the mountainous slopes divided into three areas, such as the shallow plains, plains. The mountainous plateau covers the north-western part of Gobustan. It is a mountain peninsula that split into deep valleys. There are flat plains along the southeastern slopes. Thirdly, the erosion of the fourth period, which consists of soft sedimentary rocks, has been exposed to excessive erosion and has resulted in the development of ravines and valleys. Clay has developed in the mountains near Achedra. Therefore, the typical karst landscape is widespread. Such karst areas include the Pirsaat lake lake slabs,

Shattering events in Sumgayit and Jeyrankeshmez river valleys have been spread. Frontage covers the eastern southeastern parts. Here, the mud volcanoes are widespread, and clay is seen in the karst relief. Düzben Gobustan is located south-south of the administrative district. The role of mud volcanoes in the formation of Gobustan relief forms is significant. Mud volcanoes have a special character in relief. Ceyirli, Shorsulu, Kolani, Sheiksarly, Goudkur broke and others in the district. mud volcanoes.

In the district there are Sundu, Maraza, Pirderi, Gilijan, Yacvani, Gicki, Karpase Plateaus, Shaib, Gibib, Big Gicaki, Shamshaddin, Sungur, Bayanata, Girda and others. altitude can be noted. From geological point of view, Gobustan is rich in oil and gas. Their natural indications are mud volcanoes. In Gobustan, naturally Nabur, Hilmilli (Hilmilli), Jayirli Shorsulu, Arabkadim, Sheikhzarli, Kolani and others. mud volcanoes.

Various building materials (limestone, sand, gravel), industrial clays, volcanic ash, gypsum, schist, etc. reserves.

Geographical position 

The Gobustan region is located 101 km east of Shamakhi in the east .

The relief 

In Gobustan the relief of the area – valleys, ravines, rocks, reflected in the toponymic. The spring of these places is very beautiful – tulips, chamomile, lilac roses. The role of mud volcanoes in the formation of Gobustan relief forms is significant. Ceyirli, Shorsulu, Kolani, Sheiksarly, Goudkur broke and others in the district. mud volcanoes. Various building materials (limestone, sand, gravel), industrial clays, volcanic ash, gypsum, schist, etc. reserves. Farming in the district is one of the traditional areas. The region provides grain to the maximum level of grain. Grain cultivation mainly cultivated in anchovy conditions. In the north, the Meyseri (Hacaqaya, 1241 m) and Yurtandag ridge (Yurtandag, 898 m) are the main orographic units in the center of Maraza plateau, Gicaki tributary (Gicaki d., 1047 m). There are oil, natural gas, flammable shale deposits, construction materials, many springs and mud volcanoes.

Nature 

Gobustan’s soil cover is different. In the eastern part there are gray, brown-brown, and north-west chestnut soils. Gobustan is rich in vegetation, unlike ordinary looks. There are 470 species of 4000 species in Azerbaijan here. The majority are flowering plants. For example, salad-type wormwood, cranberry, beetroot, cockroach, gull, dead boat flower, lilac, lilac, laughter, blossom flower and so on. xerophytic plants spread.

Drought-resistant arms are pomegranates, nasty, smells, figs, carrions, hips, bird grapes and so on. It should be noted that these bushings adapted to the ends of rocky rocks. Because of the small myths can easily feed on water drops falling on the stones.

The world of animals is poor. During the time, there were traces of Ceylan’s names in the widespread mammals (Jeyran fountain, Jeyran noodle, Jeyrankezmez river, etc.). It has inhabited by cattle and animals for a long time. But its extinct. At present there are monsters, jackals, foxes, badgers, rabbits, reptiles, various poisonous species (snakes, lizards), hedgehog, turtles and various birds.

The climate 

The region’s climate is mainly semi-desert climate. The first stone pages of our history are located in the eastern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the eastern and southeastern foothills of the Greater Caucasus, in Gobustan, where thousands live . Historical and geographical location of the Gobustan territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the historic area of ​​ancient Shirvan extends from the Mingachevir to the Derbent Saddin (ancient Dagestan), including the great left bank of the Kur River in Derbent. That is why, in terms of historical-geographical terms Shirvan, Gobustan should be regarded as Shirvan. However, it  well known that in the written sources of the past century, separation of Shamakhy into two major sites, as an administrative territorial unit. One of them called Qosun area and another was Gobustan area.

It should be noted that, according to modern physical-geographical region of Azerbaijan, Gobustan a separate physical-geographical . The physical and geographical territory of Gobustan crosses the southern suburb of Altiaghac with a drainage of the Kurakchi mountain (527 m), southward from the North Caucasus ridge.

Gobustan

Starting from Altiagac in the West, the Aladdash Plateau, Hilmilli (Hilemilli) and the Pirsaat River left to the river Acıdara, flowing into the river and continuing with the bed of the Pirsaat River in the south, after reaching the Sabaean Plateau, with the Harem Mountains Mountain Mountains and the Small Harami and Mişov Alat Nose with the Caspian Sea gains. The eastern border lies in the Caspian Sea and the Yasamal valley in the Absheron peninsula in the direction of the Jeyrankeçmez trough. Area Gobustan lies 80 km east of west, 100 km to the north from south to south. Part of the territory of Gobustan, which is generally physical and geographical area, is part of Gobustan administrative district, which is a part of the Khizi, Absheron, Garadagh, Hajigabul administrative districts (1369.4 km²), which established April 24, 1990.

The territory of the Gobustan administrative district is small, except for the territory of the former Maraza administrative district. Its northern frontier is the Tahtayaylak system in the Shamakhi district, north of the Khizi administrative region, along the Chingil River, in the western part of the Jung village, in the Absheron administrative district in the east, south-east, and Hajigabul administrative district in the south (6 km) from south, west and north-west of Shamakhi administrative districts. It is approximately 51 km to the south from the north and 45 km to the east from the west.

Gobustan administrative district is a mountainous area with a complex relief. His study did not go beyond the attention of researchers throughout the territory of Gobustan and investigated it.

The Gobustan district is southeastern. According to the area’s geography, the mountainous slopes divided into three areas, such as the shallow plains, plains.

City

The mountainous plateau covers the north-western part of Gobustan. It is a mountain peninsula that split into deep valleys. There are flat plains along the southeastern slopes. Thirdly, the erosion of the fourth period, which consists of soft sedimentary rocks, has exposed to excessive erosion and resulted in the development of ravines and valleys.

Clay has developed in the mountains near Achedra. Therefore, the typical karst landscape is widespread. Such karst areas have developed from the pearl-karst (lying karst) in the bedrock (useless) between the Pirsaat tube lake sands, the Achirda River, and the Zangi Gorge.

Shattering events in Sumgayit and Jeyrankeshmez river valleys have spread.

Frontage covers the eastern southeastern parts. Here, the mud volcanoes awidespread, and clay seen in the karst relief. Düzben Gobustan is located south-south of the administrative district.

The role of mud volcanoes in the formation of Gobustan relief forms is significant. Mud volcanoes have a special character in relief. Ceyirli, Shorsulu, Kolani, Sheiksarly, Goudkur broke and others in the district. mud volcanoes.

In the district there are Sundu, Maraza, Pirizheni, Gilijan, Yacvani, Gicaki, Karpase highlands, Shaib, Gibib, Big Gicki, Shamshaddin, Sunqur, Bayanata, Girda and others. altitude can be noted.

From geological point of view, Gobustan is rich in oil and gas. Their natural indications are mud volcanoes. In Gobustan, naturally Nabur, Hilmilli (Hilmilli), Jayirli Shorsulu, Arabkadim, Sheikhzarli, Kolani and others. mud volcanoes.

Various building materials (limestone, sand, gravel), industrial clays, volcanic ash, gypsum, schist, etc. reserves.

Gobustan rock art 

Gobustan petroglyphs – also called the museum under the open sky. Located in the southeastern foothills of the Greater Caucasus , this rocky massif lies on the modern highway, along the ancient Shirvan road, near the Caspian Sea. Here are numerous rock paintings, ancient human settlements and burial grave under the rocks. These rocks reflect the region’s 15,000-year history – from the Upper Palaeolith to the Middle Ages.

Archeologist Isaac Jafarzadeh, the first researcher of Gobustan, in 1939, for the first time, told the world of science about these unique places.

 

Rock paintings

Today, more than 4,000 petroglyphs (rock paintings based on stone carving technique) have found in Gobustan. These paintings include animal and fishing, household scenes, collective dance, various soloirs (swatches, spirals, crosses), horoscopes, men and women (interested in the time when ladies go fishing with men), gazelle, lions, goats, animal boats, two-wheeled cars and human traces. In Gobustan, unusual “trays” – sculpted on stone and even decorated with ornaments survived. There are also unusual “instruments” – stones giving strong sounds. Because each stone its own template, it  called a “stone stone.”

In the Gobustan rocks there were signs that the Roman legionaries were here in the first century of our era. On one of the rocks, a text written in the Latin language by the Roman legions of the 11 th lightning legion. It is shown in that paper that at that time Emperor Domitian Caesar of Rome was in German power. Now Gobustan has nominated for membership in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

 

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