Salyan district

Salyan region – administrative and territorial unit in the Republic of Azerbaijan . The administrative center is the city ​​of Salyan .


There are various opinions about the etymology of Salyan’s word. Russian researcher K.Sadovski, who had been in Salyan in 1880, claimed that Salyan was formed from the word “sal” or “salyane” in Persian, meaning “bac”. Author of the “Full Persian, Arabic Russian Dictionary” I.Jagello, the author of the “Burhane Qate” book Mohammad Hussein Tabrizi and the author of “Dictionary Naci” Naci also agreed with K.Sadovski. The author of the book “Geographical Names” Nabi Nabiyev connects the meaning of Salyan with the name of “ferry location” (the place where the ribs are taken to the shore) or the tribe. The Sal tribe is the name of the Turkic tribe in Azerbaijan. World-renowned Turkologist Murad Aji claims that Salyan is a tribal term. Linguist scientist K.

From Salyan to Ardabil , Tabriz , Derbent and other cities, fish, caviar, oil and salt were exported from the nearby Babazanjan mountain range . Historical sources show that in 1295-1304, the Sultanate of Elkhan was conquered by the Sultan Mahammad Kazan Khan after the adoption of Islam, in 1295, in the territory of the present-day Kura river, in the territory of present Salyan. The city was named Mahmudabad in honor of Kazan Khan. It is believed that the city has occasionally been renamed Mugan, Hashtasfi and Mahmudabad, and later has been named Salyan.

But if you take into consideration that old caravan routes have passed from ancient times to Salyan, and caravans that use these caravans have to cross the Kura River inevitably. It is also known that at that time there was no bridge over the Kur River in Salyan territory and the river crossing was possible only through the “ferry”. It is likely that the Salyan name was Salyan, as it was mentioned above, . Additionally, it should be considered that in the city of Salyan there is a neighborhood known as “Old Ferry Wharf”, known all over the Kura river. Generally, the passage through the Kur River through the territory of Salyan region until 1946, ie until the first Salyan bridge was put into operation, was only available through the Salt and the ferry.

In 1680, by the decree of the king, the Salyan and Guba khanate were united and given to the authority of the 1st Hussein khan, the center of Khudat. (Married to Salyan’s son Hussein Khan Rudbariy’s daughter, and as a volunteer for accepting Shiism) Gusi’s daughter Husii’s daughter, daughter of Salyan’s daughter, was born.

During the reign of Nadir Shah in 1735, Salyan was separated from the Guba Khanate and was directly subordinated to the central power as an independent administrative entity. During the years, the governor of the city was Hasanbey Khan.

In the years after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747, the new khanates and sultans, who began to form in chaotic form in Azerbaijan, declared that Ibrahim Rudbari, the distant relative of the 1st Hussein of Guba Khan, restored his power in Salyan and left the Guba khanate and declared himself a sovereign khan. The people of Salyan who were dissatisfied with the rule of the rulers wanted the Guba khanate. In 1757, Salyanians came to the aid of the warriors led by the uncle of the Guba Khanate Fatali Khan. Ibrahim Rudbarini fled Salyan. Thus, the 8-year rule of Ibrahim Rudbari was put to the end, and the Salyan Khanate was again transferred to the Guba Khanate. From 1757 to 1768 Salyan’s judge Kalb Ali was the khan. After 1782, Salyan’s son became Qubad Khan.

In 1760, the traveler in Salyan, Biberstane, writes in his writings: “The population of Salyan is numerous, and most of them live rich and wealthy. There is a good income from fishing in Kur River. Most of the residents were leased to merchants from the Astarakh province. In the summer of 1774, when the Refugee Hamamah attacked Amir Hamza Guba and besieged Derbent Fortress, Fatali Khan took refuge in Salyan and lived and occupied for 10 months.

Historical sources show that in 1795, Aga Mohammed Shah Gajar marched on the Caucasus with a 60,000 troops. During the attack on Shamakhi, the Gajar army faced serious resistance in Salyan. After a large number of casualties, the city’s army suffered heavy losses, and a large part of the city’s population was killed and the city of Salyan was completely burned. In 1797, Guba Khan Huseyn Ali, and Garaimanli villages have been relocated to Salyan and the city has begun to be rebuilt (now the villages are now in the Neftchala district ).

In 1852, the territory of the city of Salyan consisted of 150 desyatins (about 1,600 km²), 95 des. under construction. In 1852 Salyan was home to 1125 personalities. 1118 of them belonged to Muslims and 7 to other nations. Seven mosques, 3 caravanserais, 1 market, 5 baths, 28 private moslem schools, 5 squares, 32 streets in Salyan , Has 24 gardens.

In 1863, urban administration was transferred to the police-pristav method, and since that year the city’s expansion has begun. The census list of 1863 shows that 1,102 homes in Salyan were 10634 inhabitants. In February 1868, Tsarist Russia during the Baku province in the Javad accident created and Salyan administrative and cultural center of this accident happening.

In 1881, the city’s total land area was 800 desyatins. In Salyan there are 12 streets, 35 streets, 2 squares, 1 market, 2 Muslim and 1 Christian cemetery. There are 1 Russian and 12 Turkish schools. In Salyan, 2323 bricks home. In 1897 Salyan had 11,787 people.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Mirkhalik Abdullayev built 3 cotton-cleaning sites with annual production capacity of 3-4 thousand tons. At the same time, Salyan has a thermal power station, four primary schools and a library. Meanwhile, there were 20 small textile factories in the city, 200 shops, 5 commercial banks, 3 caravansaries, ship bridges, post office, quarantine customs, 11 madrassas, underground baths and hospitals. For the first time in all South Russia and the Caucasus, meteorological station in Salyan was established in 1864. Folk art: carpet weaving, knitting, engraving on stone, jewelry, engraving on wood, blacksmithing. Until 1973, the territory of the present Neftchala district (excluding 1939-1959) belonged to the Salyan region.

Geographical position 

The distance from Baku to the center of Salyan region is 126 km. The territory of the district is located on the Kur-Araz lowland of Mughan and Sevan-Shirvan plains. There are 16 settlements in the district.

The relief 

The region borders the Caspian Sea in a small area in the East . Tire and hills Babazanli , Khidirli , Bandovan and others. there are. Most of the area is below 28 meters below the ocean level. Neogene and Anthropogenic sediments are spread. Mud volcanoes include Galmas , Khidirli , Babazanli and others. there are. The territory of the district is rich in oil and gas deposits. Gray-brown, gray-meadow, meadow-wetland, saline soils are spread.


 Salyan region Bala Kur river

The vegetation is half desert and desert type. In Salyan, Shirvan National Park antelope , red qumsicanı , small Asia qumsicanı , Adder , brunette heron , coot , little cormorant , great white heron , pick up a duck , mallard duck , mallard , rabbit, teal , diving , Marek , white-tailed sea eagle , cane Harrier , white-tailed sunken nose , lapwing , qaratirinqagrass and large bark , emperor eagle, nightingale, quail , thistle , dove , dove , grass , stork, Syrian tree, thrush and so on. animals and birds.

Wolves and jackals in the plains , and foxes and wild cats in the Kura area .

Curses in Kurzangi and Kurovdag Mountains and Babacanli Mountain have significant healing properties. The coast of the Kura river adorns the Tuqay forests. The coast of Bala Kura (Agsu) river is very picturesque in the morning when smoke rises. The world’s most southern springs are Syr-Syr-i Salyanda.

The climate 

The summer has a very mild-warm climate. The average temperature is 8.5 ° C in the winter and 33.5 ° C in the summer. The annual rainfall is 250-400 mm. The coldest days of the year are at the end of January (-1 ° C, -5 ° C), and the hottest days are in late August and early September (43 ° C). In Salyan, the hottest days of September were named “black baking”, “gazelle for shade”, “cotton heat” and so on.

Large residential areas

Plastics residential area, Station residential area, Babazanli village

Economic characteristics 


White fish, sturgeon

The basis of agriculture in the region is cotton, grain, vegetable and animal husbandry. Dry subtropical fruit-growing and gardening are important agricultural areas. In Salyan region there are plastic refineries, cotton processing and brick production factories.

There were large fishing farms in the region. Currently, most of the fish sold in the country belongs to Salyan. White fish and sturgeon in the Salyan region, which has been hunted on the Kur River, have an unusual taste and taste. Generally, white fish and sturgeon in Salyan district are considered the most delicious in the world, according to unanimous opinion of specialists and builders. The black caviar that is produced here is talked about as a legend. The black caviar produced in Salyan is the most expensive caviar all over the world.

Centralized library system 

The first public library in Salyan 1903Mirza Aziz Babazadeh and Mirza Yagub Alakbar oglu Alizadeh initiated and worked in the field. In fact, the creation of the first cinema is in the creation of an educational institution in Salyan in 1880. The establishment of the Salyan school had a great impact on the development of cultural and educational activities along with public education. With the opening of this school, Salyan’s first public library was created. Thus, those who gathered there on the occasion of the opening ceremony decided to organize a library called “School Community Library” and volunteered for this purpose. In a short time 342 men. 40 cents. was collected. Thus, on October 1, 1881, with the help of the public, the first school-public library under Salyan’s normal school was opened.

Later, this public library was enriched every year with a book fund and eventually turned into a mass library. In 1975, the Library of Salyan Region was transformed into a Centralized Library System, when library libraries were owned by various departments, and their collections were packed in a more central way. In 1978, the Library moved to a new building, which was commissioned on a sample exemplary special project.

At present the Central Library of the Salyan Regional Center named after Nizami Ganjavi unites 54 branches:

  • 1 children’s library;
  • 1 youth library;
  • 47 rural libraries;
  • 5 city libraries.



Salyan tincture


Salyan taste bread

Salyan cuisine is one of the most important places in Azerbaijan’s culinary area for its color, richness and taste. The geographical area and hot climate of Salyan have played a major role in shaping its cuisine. Thus, during the hot days of the summer months, the most commonly used salted fish and yogurt drink are given priority. The basis of Salyan cuisine is fish dishes. Plenty of fish products from the main Kura and Caspian Sea have incredible impact on Salyan’s culinary. Find the hardest place in the 2nd place, to cook it with tasty and professionalism like Salyan. They come to Salyan from different corners of Azerbaijan, to taste the true fish, strawberries, fish buffalo and stuffed fish. Along with fish dishes, chicken breasts, tomato chimney, narnumuru are also specially prepared.

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